Brief description of the solved problem: Private zoo
Country of the origin: USA
Type of theself-goverment: City
Name of the self-goverment: Pittsburgh, Pensylvania, USA
Date of realization: 1994 – current
Detail description of solved problem
The state and local authorities finance in Slovakia many activities,which is not necessary to finance by this meaning by reason of lack of imagination or economic knowledge about possible alternatives. Such activity is for example running of zoological garden (Zoo Bojnice is finannced by ministry of enviroment and by own commercial activity, Zoo Bratislava and Zoo Košice are financed from city budget and their commercial activity). This type of financing is residual of communistic period, in which were this organizations estblished. It is true, that all zoo are financed also by own commercial activity, but the financing of public budget causes also importatnt disadvantages, for example deformes the prizes of tickets, disables to decide about the optimal size of bussines, and also charges the public budget. Some zoological gardens and aquariums in USA run like the not for profit organizations.
Detail description of strategy of sollution
Some zoological gardens are not for profit organizations, which gain the funds by own commercial activity, sponsorship and gifts of donators. Americal commercial and tax law provides som tax privileges (for example donations to such organizations are tax deductible) to this type of organizations established by private persons for public services, charitable or educational purposes. Pittsburgh zoological garden is this type of organization, which was transformed to this form after privatization in 1994 (to 1994 ran by Pittsburgh city) and now is operated by Pittsburgh zoological society. The legal advantages were not main aim of privatization. This change also caused the change of managing style. This type of organization is financed from commercial activities, gifts or sponsorship (and is liable to donators for using of donated money). There is not possibility to claim other resources of public budgets and in the case of lack of funds the project will be terminated (some zoological gardens and aquariums had to stop their activities by this reason). This organization has to use their funds by effective meaning and also has to invest the funds by correct meaning to persuade the cleints and donors to visit the zoo, or provide her gifts.
Description of results of sollution
Pittsburgh zoological garden is evidence that private funds can secure the activities which wa formerly finaced by self goverment (city). In 1994 Zoo Education Complex was built, creating space of five classrooms, library and 300-seat lecure hall (similar lecture hall like average slovak state financed unniversity), children zoo was completely renovated and opened in 1995 and widened and enhanced in 1997, aqaurium in value of 17,4 milion USD was opened in 2000. Zoo also run successfull commercional activities (for examples celebrations of state holidays in zoo or adoption of single animals by private persons) and also some generous donators donated the zoo sufficient funds. The basis of similar success are people. The people have to try to help to similar organizations, and if the similar organizations like zoo will be in some meaning important to people, this organizations will be successfull and well performing. It is necessry to remark, that decreasing of exepenses of public budgets must be connected with decreasing of tax. It is not possible to expect, that people will be finance this type of actvities by their donations, and on the other hand that they will pay taxes, which will be used by non-effective meaning.